Page 1. Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8. Page 9. Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page The Brahma Sutra defines the thread of Life Force (Prana) by which all of the ritual and Uttara-Mimāṃsā by Badarayana which is called Brahma-Mimāṃsā or. The Vedanta Sutras of Badarayana, Commentary by Sankara (SBE 38), translated by George Thibaut , at
Vedas consist of three portions viz. Just as the head is the most important portion of a man, so also the Upanishads which treat of the ssutras portion of the Vedas is the head of the Vedas.
Hence it is said to be the Siras head of Vedas. Mimamsa means suhras investigation or enquiry into the connected meaning of the sacred texts.
Of this Mimamsa two brajma have been recognised, the Purva Mimamsa earlier and the Uttara Mimamsa the latter. The former systematises the Karma Kanda-the portion of the Veda which pertains to action and sacrifices and which comprises Samhitas and the Brahmanas; the latter systematises the Jnana Kanda i. Jaimini is the author of the Purva Mimamsa. The study of Brahma Sutras is a synthetic study of the Upanishads.
It treats of the Vedanta philosophy. The Vedas are eternal. They were not written by any individual.
They came out from the breath of Hiranyagarbha Lord Brahma. Vedanta is the end or gist of the Vedas. It deals with the knowledge portion. Vedanta is not mere speculation. It is the authentic record of transcendental experiences or direct and actual realisation of the great Hindu Rishis or seers. Brahma Sutras is the Science of the Soul. Sutras are concise aphorisms.
They give the essence of the arguments on a topic. Maximum of thought is compressed or condensed into these Sutras in as few words as possible. It is easy to remember them. Great intellectual people only, with realisation, can compose Sutras. They are clues or aids to memory. They cannot be understood without a lucid commentary Bhashya. The commentary also is in need of further elaborate explanation.
Thus the interpretations of the Sutras gave rise to various kinds of literary writings such as Vrittis gloss and Karikas. The different Acharyas founders of different schools of thought have given their own interpretations of the Sutras to establish their own doctrines. His school of thought is Kevala Advaita.
The commentary of Sri Nimbarkacharya is known as Vedanta-parijata-saurabha. Sri Vallabhacharya expounded his system of philosophy of Suddhadvaita pure monism and his commentary on the Brahma Sutras is known as Anu Bhashya. Sanskrit is very elastic. It is like Kamadhenu or Kalpataru. You can milk out of it various kinds of Rasas according to your intellectual calibre and spiritual experiences. Therefore different Acharyas have built different systems of thought or cults by interpreting the Sutras in their own ways and became founders of sects.
Madhva founded his own system of Dvaita. The cults of Vishnu known as Bhagavata or Pancharatra and those of Siva, Pasupata or Mahesvara have interpreted Brahma Sutras in accordance with their own tenets. Nimbarkacharya interpreted the Vedanta system from the standpoint of Bhedabheda-Dvaitadvaita. He was largely influenced by the teachings of Bhaskara who flourished in the first half of the ninth century.
The theory held by Bhaskara and Nimbarka was held by the ancient teacher Audulomi. Badarayana himself refers to this theory in his Brahma Sutras. There are more than fourteen commentaries on the Brahma Sutras. The erroneous identification of the body with the pure Atman is the root cause for human sufferings and miseries and for births and deaths. You identify yourself with the body and say, ‘I am fair, dark, stout or thin.
I am a Brahmin, I am a Kshatriya, I am a doctor’. You identify yourself with the senses and say, ‘I am blind, I am dumb’. You identify yourself with the mind and say, ‘I know nothing. I enjoyed a good meal. I am suffering from this disease’. The entire object of the Brahma Sutras is to remove this erroneous identification of the Soul with the body which is the root cause of your sufferings and miseries, which is the product of Avidya ignorance and help you in the attainment of the final emancipation through knowledge of Brahman.
The Upanishads seem to be full of contradictions at first. They do not contain consistent system of thought. Sri Vyasa systematised the thoughts or philosophy of the Upanishads in his Brahma Sutras. The Sutras reconcile the conflicting statements of the Upanishads. In reality there are no conflicts for the thinker.
Audulomi and Asmarathya also did this work in their own way and founded their own schools of thought. All Acharyas have commented on Brahma Sutras. This is a great authority for every philosophical school in India.
If any Acharya wishes to establish his own cult or sect or school suutras thought he will have to write a commentary of his own on Brahma Sutras. Then only it will be recognised.
The five great Acharyas: Sri Sankara the exponent of Kevala Advaita or uncompromising monism, Sri Ramanuja the exponent of Visishtadvaita or qualified monism, Sri Nimbarka the exponent of Bhedabheda-vada, Sri Madhva the exponent of strict Dvaitism or Dvaita-vada and Sri Vallabha the exponent of Suddhadvaita-vada or pure monism agree that Brahman is the cause of this world and that knowledge of Brahman leads to Moksha or the final emancipation, which is the goal of life. They also emphatically declared that Brahman can be known only through the scriptures and not through mere reasoning.
But they differ amongst themselves as to the nature of this Brahman, the relation of the individual soul to Brahman, the state of the soul in the state of final emancipation, the means of brahmaa It and Its causality with reference to this universe.
According to Sri Sankara, there is one Absolute Brahman who is Sat-chit-ananda, who is of an absolutely homogeneous nature. The appearance of this world is due to Maya-the illusory power of Brahman which is neither Bwdarayana nor Asat. This world is unreal. This world is a Vivarta or apparent modification through Maya.
Brahman appears as this universe through Maya. Brahman is the only reality.
Full text of “Brahma Sutra Sankara Bhashya English Translation Vasudeo Mahadeo Apte “
The sutraw soul has limited himself through Avidya and identification with the body and other vehicles. Through his selfish actions he enjoys the fruits of his actions. He becomes the actor and enjoyer.
He regards himself as atomic and as an agent on account of Avidya or the limiting Antahkarana. The individual soul becomes identical with Brahman when his Avidya is destroyed. In reality Jiva is all-pervading and identical with Brahman. Isvara or Saguna Brahman is a product of Maya. Worship of Isvara leads to Krama Mukti.
The pious devotees the knowers of Saguna Brahman braha to Brahmaloka and attain final release through highest knowledge. They do not return to this world. They attain the Nirguna Brahman at the end of the cycle. Knowledge of Nirguna Brahman is the only means of liberation. The knowers of Nirguna Brahman attain immediate final release or Sadyomukti.
They need not go by the path of gods or the path of Devayana.
The Vedanta Sutras of Badarayana Index
They merge themselves in Para Brahman. They do not go to any Loka or world. According to Sri Ramanuja, Brahman is with attributes Savisesha. Me is endowed with all auspicious qualities. He is not intelligence itself. Intelligence is his chief attribute. He contains within Himself whatever exists.
World and individual souls are essential real constituents of Brahman’s nature. Matter and souls are badzrayana modes of Him Prakara. The individual souls will never be entirely resolved in Brahman. According to Ramanuja, Brahman is not absolutely one and homogeneous. The individual souls undergo a state of Sankocha contraction during Pralaya. They expand Vikasa during creation. Sri Ramanuja’s Brahman is a Personal God with attributes.
The individual soul of Ramanuja is really individual. It will remain a personality for ever.
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