Download scientific diagram | Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Urticaceae) in South-Pantanal, Brazil, with a nest of Nasutitermes ephratae Rambur ( Termitideae). Image of Cecropia pachystachya. Cecropia catarinensis Trusted. Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike (CC BY-NC-SA Distribution and Ecology of Cecropia species in Singapore. Fig. 2. Cecropia pachystachya sapling, showing large, almost circular palmate.

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Cecropia is a Neotropical genus consisting of sixty-one recognized species with a highly distinctive lineage of dioecious trees. The genus is native to the American tropics, where it is one of the most recognizable components of the rainforest.

The genus is named after Cecrops Ithe mythical first king of Athens. Common local names include yarumo or yagrumoor more specifically yagrumo hembra “female yagrumo ” to distinguish them from the similar-looking but distantly related Pachystxchya which are called yagrumo macho”male yagrumo “. Cecropiz English, these trees are occasionally called pumpwoods though this may also refer to C. The classification can be subjective; there are many different viewpoints on how to classify Cecropia due to the many changes over the years.

The following are two examples with the second generally more accepted. This version of the classification system is considered the newer version and more widely accepted. Cecropia was first recognized and accounted for by Marcgrave and Pisothe latter including an illustration with characteristic features. Many species were also described by HemsleyRichterDonnell SmithRusby, HuberRobinsonPittierBaileyand the most extensive number by Snethlage Hans Melchior placed Cecropia in Urticales and Moraceae concephaleideae because of its woody bark.

When phylogenetic data became available, Cecropia was then moved back into Urticaceae.

The trees consist of very few branches, usually with candelabrum-like branching system. In the axils of the leaves formed during later development, the axillary branch primordiae do not produce more than one cecopia two prophylls and a bud. There is high deviation in the morphology of Cecropia species, but most form small to medium-sized trees, 5—15m tall. When the branches are cut, they release a watery, often mucilaginous sap which turns black when it is exposed to the air.

Berg and Rosselli describe in detail six types of trichomes that can be recognized on Cecropia and more information on each pxchystachya be found in their paper. Thick unicellular hairs 2. Thin unicellular hairs pachgstachya. Pearl glands or pearl bodies and 6. Parts of the Cecropia such as the stipules, the spathes, and the main veins of the lamina have red-coloring substances. The leaves of adult Cecropia species are large and peltatealmost circular in circumference.

Pourouma bicolor is very similar in appearance to the Cecropiawith cecrlpia umbrella-shaped leaves, stilt roots, large leaves with wide lobes, and whitish color on the underside. Between forty and fifty percent of the 61 species of Cecropia are montane or submontane Andean, with the majority of species in the northern part of the Andes, in Colombia and Ecuador. A map of the distribution of Cecropia can be found in the article written by Berg and Rosselli, Species in the genus Cecropia are some of the most abundant pioneer tree species in natural tree fall gaps inside primary pxchystachya.


Its geographic distribution extends along the Pacific and Atlantic Mexican coasts and in Central and South American forests and are found over an elevation range of 0 to 2, meters. Cecropia species are among the most abundant pioneers of other neotropical forests.

In most low-elevation, wet regions of the neotropics, Cecropia trees are ubiquitous and important invaders of pachysttachya clearings. The species Cecropia pachystachya and C. Cecropia species has staminate and pistillate flowers on separate trees, more commonly referred to as a dioecious species.

The fruits are achenes enveloped by a fleshy perianthsoblongoid, elliptic, sub obovoid or sub ovoid. It is often the keystone food supply for frugivorous animals, such as birds, fruit bats, monkeys, opossums, and even fish.

Traits of the staminate flowers and inflorescences are adapted to wind pzchystachya either by pendulous spikes which can be moved by the wind to shed the pollen or by the special adaptation of detachment of anthers and their secondary attachment allowing the shedding pacchystachya pollen by motion of anthers.

Pachystwchya pollination is the dominant form, but insects, small beetles and flies can be pollinators. In the Neotropics, toucans and other birds help disperse the seeds of species with short infructescences, while bats are associated with species with long peduncles and spikes.

Species growing near rivers, on the other hand, are usually dispersed by water. The species in the genus Cecropia are generally not endangered; therefore, there are no major conservation effects in place. Their abundance increases temporarily with the clearing of forest or creation of gaps. Cecropia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including cecropoa arctiid moth Hypercompe icasia ; the Cecropia moth Hyalophora cecropia is a North American species however, and thus allopatric with the plant genus.

The leaves and buds are also eaten by sloths as their main source of food. This symbiosis has been studied extensively by biologists such as Daniel Janzen. Pacyhstachya fruit, known as snake fingersare a popular food of diverse animals however, including bats like the common fruit bat Artibeus jamaicensis or Carollia species, the Central American squirrel monkey Saimiri oerstediiand birds like the green aracari Pteroglossus viridis pachjstachya, the keel-billed toucan Ramphastos sulfuratusthe peach-fronted conure Eupsittula aureathe bare-throated bellbird Procnias nudicollis [10] and particularly nine-primaried oscines.

The seeds are not normally digested and thus these animals are important in distributing the trees. Some birds — e. The elfin-woods warbler Pachstachya angelae is notable for using Cecropia leaves as nesting material, which no other New World warbler family Parulidae seems to do. Cecropia is a major pioneer tree genera in regions of the Neotropics with wet lowland and montane forest. Being aggressive, rapid growth trees, whose succulent fruits are readily sought by various animals, they tend to be among the first pioneer species to occupy former forest areas cleared for pasture or altered by human activity.

Species of Cecropia often display what is called myrmecophytism as a form of biotic cecro;ia. Myrmecophytism is a mutualistic relationship formed with ant colonies, where the ants protect the tree from herbivory and the trees provide shelter and pachystxchya for the ants. Along with protection against herbivory, the ants will also prevent the Cecropia from encroaching vines and cecrropia plants.


This may vary between or within species and over geographical locations.

The main ants found living in Cecropia are different species of Azteca ants, although all ants belong to the same family, Formicidae. In the article written by Davidson, [2] on pageTable 1 contains known obligate Cecropia-ants listed by species and geographic distribution. Ants and Cecropia have coadapted to each other; meaning that each species has evolved one or more traits in response to selective pressures exerted by the other.

Cecropia pachystachya – Wikipedia

An example of a coadapted trait resulting from association with one another is the recognition and use of both prostomata and Mullerian bodies by queens and worker ants. The wood from Cecropia trees is used by local people mainly to make musical instruments and tool handles. Flutes and guitars are commonly made of Cecropia wood.

An attempt was made to use the wood to produce paper but the wood pulp was too high in resin and it was not suitable.

The fibers of the bark can be twisted into rope and the ropes are manufactured for bowstrings and hammocks. The main human-use of Cecropia trees is planting them in soil erosion prone areas. The trees make few demands on the soil and grow very quickly.

The trees are used in clear-cut areas because they retain the soil, create new biomass and allow other types of plants to settle in the area. Berg and Rosselli stated that decoctions of leaves are pachhystachya to stimulate the cardiac system, to treat asthma and pneumonia, to treat diabetes and as a diuretic. In Trinidad and TobagoC.

Cecropia leaves can be used as a substitute for sandpaper. Cecropia bark can be used in rope making as well as in tannery. So far, there are no pharmaceuticals in the North or South American markets based on Cecropia species.

However, scientists in Brazil have been studying the preparation of pharmaceutical products containing mainly C. The preparation of pellets by extrusion-spheronization [14] and polymeric nanoparticles has been reported [15]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Hypoglycemic effects of Cecropia pachystachya in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

For other uses, see Cecropia disambiguation. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

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