Week 1: Review/Begin Optimality Theory. Reading: Kager Chapter 1: Conflicts in Grammar. The fundamental idea behind OT is that surface forms of language. c h a m b e r s a n d p e t e r t r u d g i l l Dialectology Second edition c. ly o n s Definiteness r. k a g e r Optimality Theory OPTIMALITY THEORY rené kager. Optimality Theory [Rene Kager].pdf. Download. Share This Post. Related Articles. Phonology Analysis and Theory [Edmund Gussmann].pdf.
Languages differ in the ranking of constraints; and any violations must be minimal. It also reviews in detail a selection of the considerable research output which OT has optimaloty produced. Exercises accompany chapters 1—7, and there are sections on further reading.
Optimality Theory will pptimality welcomed by any linguist with a basic knowledge of derivational Generative Phonology. In this series p. This book presents an introductionto OptimalityTheory, a grammatical framework of recent origin Prince and SmolenskyMcCarthy and Prince a, b.
Constraints are universal, and directly encode markedness statements and principles enforcing the preservation of contrasts. Languages differ in the ranking of constraints, giving prioritiesto some constraintsover others. However, such violation must be minimal, which predicts kaager economy property of grammatical processes.
However, OT radically differs from earlier generative models in various ways. Moreover, OT is surface-based in the sense that well-formedness constraints evaluate surface forms only — no structural conditions are placed on lexical forms. Earlier models had assumed Morpheme Structure Constraints, resulting in the duplication of static and dynamic rules in phonotactics. This serves to explain conspiracies: Finally, OT also eliminates derivations, replacing these by optimalihy The comparison of OT and.
Optimality Theory is not a theory of representations, but a theory of interactions of grammatical principles.
9780521580199 – Optimality Theory (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics) by Rene Kager
More accurately, the issue of representations is orthogonal to that of constraint interaction. Therefore the divergence from earlier generative models is less clear-cut in this respect. Most OT literature on phonology, for example, assumes the representational alphabet of non-linear metrical and autosegmental phonology.
However, our discussion of these phenomena serves to highlight results of OT that are relevant beyond theoty. To support this point, a range of segmental phenomena will be analysed throughout the book. Optimality Theory is a general theory of grammar, optiimality than one of phonology. Therefore this book is not limited in its empirical scope to phonological phenomena, but it also contains chapters on the learnability of OT grammars chapter 7 and extensions to syntax chapter 8.
Finally, chapter 9 will address a number of important residual issues in OT, focussing on opacity, and discussing current developments in assumptions on lexical representations versus allomorphyoptionality, absolute ungrammaticality, and various functionally oriented approaches to phonology. During its brief period of existence, OT has sparked off a large output of articles, PhD dissertations, and volumes.
In chapters 2 and 5—8, one particular piece of research will be focussed optimaliy, while placing it against a broad theoretical background. Chapter 7 discusses work by. Tesar and Smolenskyon the learnability of OT grammars, and its dependence on basic OT notions, such as strict domination, minimal violation, and assumptions on lexical forms.
Chapter 8 is devoted to the analysis of Whmovement and its relation with auxiliary inversion and do-support in English by Grimshawpointing out the relevance of OT outside phonology.
This book is not a general optimalitt to phonology, and the reader should come equipped with a basic knowledge of derivational Generative Phonology, including rules and representations, and optimaality knowledge of Minimalist Syntax for chapter 8.
Moreover, each chapter contains a list of suggestions for further reading. The idea for this book arose during a course I taught at the LOT summer school at the University of Amsterdam in Stephen Anderson, who was present at this course, suggested basing an OT textbook on its contents. For his role in originating this book, I owe him special thanks.
Parts of this book are based on research reported on earlier occasions. Chapter akger contains results from Kager forthcomingpresented at the conference on the Derivational Residue in Phonology, Tilburg University, October I wish to thank the organizers of these events: These comments have led to a number of substantial improvements.
Thanks to Martin Everaert for supplying the child language data discussed in chapter 7. Jacqueline, this book is dedicated to you. The central goal of linguistic theory is to shed light on the core of grammatical principles that is common to all languages.
Evidence for the assumption that there should be such a core of principles comes from two domains: Grammars of individual languages draw their basic options from this limited set, which many researchers identify as Oltimality Grammar UG. By hypothesis, the innateness of UG is what makes grammars so much alike in their basic designs, and what causes the observed developmental similarities.
In early Generative Grammar ChomskyChomsky and Halleprocesses took the shape of rewrite rules, while the major mode of interaction was linear ordering. Optimzlity the late s and early s, considerable efforts were put into constraining both rule typology and interactions. The broad idea was to factor out universal properties of rules in the form of conditions. Gradually more and more properties were factored out of rules and attributed to universal conditions on rules and representations.
Lexical Phonology, Kiparsky b. What all these efforts to constrain rules and rule interactions share, either implicitly or explicitly, is the assumption that universal principles can only be universal if they are actually inviolatein every language.
Optimality Theory – Kager – excelente introdução à OT
This absolute interpretation of universality is not the only one possible, however. In structuralist linguistics HjelmslevTrubetzkoyJakobson ; cf. Unmarked values are crosslinguistically preferred and basic in all grammars, while marked values are cross- linguistically avoided and used by grammars only to create contrast. For example,For example,Subjacency was proposed as a universal condition on syntactic movement rules and the Obligatory Contour Principle as a universal condition on phonological rules.
Optimality Theory – Kager Cristiano row Enviado por: Parte 1 de 7.
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